By Ulrike Brandi

The advance of public lighting fixtures is a good and not pricey option to improve the reputation of city parts. Many towns in Europe have already well-known this truth and grasp plans to create solely new platforms of city lighting fixtures. regardless of its starting to be acceptance, a typology of city lights has now not been to be had beforehand. mild the towns is a pragmatic consultant to raised mild on urban streets, public squares, and structures. Drawing at the author's large specialist event, it addresses the technical and making plans elements of the duty and offers vital info on feasibility and ?nancing types. geared up systematically and with a wealth of colour illustrations, element drawings, and implementation plans, it's an necessary advisor to effectively interacting with different planners, executive departments, and funders.

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59 Typology: Travelling by Car Roundabouts An ingenious invention: the roundabout. It was first tested for urb an traffic in New York City and Paris approxima tely one hundred years ago and has been employed ever since. The fact that roundabouts eliminate many of the dangers of tr affic is widely accepted today. Consequently, Europe has seen a full-scale inv asion ofnew roundabouts in past years. The more useful the periphery of the circle, the more superfluous is its centre. An obvious treatment would be to furni sh the island with artistic designs offlower borders, large sculptures or traffic fixtures.

Close collaboration with the city and other consultants is of utmost importance during this stage. The performance profile for the proposals of the second stage follows on from that of the fist stage: 1) Design and coordination of lighting proposals of the masterplan: Finalising the proposals: illustrating the lighting design guide with CAD drawings, precise specification ofluminaires and lamps, compiling quantities and costs. Generally this step relates to specific site areas because 35 Process, Efficiency and Performance Profiles implementation will be incremental, possibly extending over several years.

Some car parks are more susceptible to glare - from the perspective oflighting technology - predominantly in areas where sunlight enters the decks and falls directly onto the driving lane. Artificial lighting levels must be twice as high in these areas than in other places.

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