By B C Currell, R C E Dam-Mieras

This e-book discusses the subsequent: uptake of foodstuff, nitrogen and sulphur assimilation, amino acid and nucleotide biosynthesis, the biosynthesis of carbohydrates, the mixing and legislation of metabolism and keep an eye on of metabolic pathway flux

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5 Carrier-mediated transport passive diffusion is different from passive transport In the previous section we discriminated carrier-mediated transport from diffusion. We can further distinguish two main types of transport, called active and passive transport. The characteristic difference between the two is that passive transport does not require energy, whereas active transport does. Passive transport, also called facilitated diffusion, should not be confused with passive diffusion. They are similar in the sense that the substrate moves down a concentration gradient and the processes do not require the expenditure of energy, but remember that the three identifying characteristics of carrier-mediated transport discussed earlier do not apply to passive diffusion.

The movement of solute driven by the proton motive force is called secondary active transport. 9). Movement of cations in this way can set up a secondary gradient of ions which may itself serve as an energy source for the active transport of other molecules. Active transport mechanisms; a) b) and c) are referred to in the text. three classes of secondary active transport There are three classes of secondary active transport, these are: symport · symport: two molecules are transported by the same carrier in the same direction.

We shall now examine each of the five essential requirements of nitrogen fixation in more detail. 3) to remind yourself of the overall scheme. 2 The biological reductant electron donors in N2 fixation Nitrogen fixation is basically a reductive process requiring a continuous source of strong reducing agent. The origin and nature of the electron donors used in nitrogen fixation vary among the different physiological groups of nitrogen fixers. In anaerobic systems, pyruvate, hydrogen or formate are used and in aerobic or symbiotic nitrogen fixers NADH or NADPH are the electron donors.

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