By Anthony P. Hollander, Paul V. Hatton

Specialist laboratory researchers describe in a customary layout the entire assorted laboratory tools had to practice state of the art tissue engineering. themes diversity from the synthesis, processing, and characterization of particular biomaterials, throughout the winning use of scaffolds within the engineering of tissues, to ideas necessary in comparing the organic caliber of scaffold-engineered tissues. themes of specific curiosity comprise the incorporation of organic molecules into scaffold biomaterials and using quite a lot of equipment and strategies to generate a finished description of cell-polymer build caliber.

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11. Rehydrate scaffolds in a graded ethanol series (see Note 1). Start with 100% ethanol and proceed to 95%, 80%, and 70% (see Note 2). Equilibrate the scaffolds in two changes of each solution for at least 60 min (see Note 3). 12. , disposable microtome blades) separated by a 2-mm-thick spacer. The ends of the sample should be discarded (see Note 4). 13. To produce a scaffold consisting only of material from the core of the original tube, use a sharp punch to cut a cylinder of 5–10 mm diameter from the thin slice.

3. Brief vacuum treatment of scaffolds submerged in 70% ethanol may be employed to remove entrapped air bubbles. 04/Elder/41-48 46 09/25/2003, 11:21 AM Chitosan Scaffolds 47 4. Scaffolds will have a more dense microstructure with somewhat smaller pores in a zone extending from the surface to as much as 100 µm in depth. 5. Fig. 1 is a representative scanning electron micrograph of a porous chitosan scaffold. 6. Hydrated scaffolds are soft, spongy, and highly extensible. The tensile elastic modulus of hydrated samples is in the range of 100–500 kPa (16), and equilibrium compressive modulus is approx 3–4 kPa.

220, 234–300. 6. Solchaga, L. , Goldberg, V. , and Caplan, A. I. (2000) Hyaluronic acid-based biomaterials in tissue engineered cartilage repair, in Redefining Hyaluronan (Abatangelo, G. and Weighel, P. , Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 233–246. 7. , and Williams, D. F. (1998) Semisynthetic resorbable materials from hyaluronan esterification. Biomaterials 19, 2101–2127. 8. , and Pastorello, A. (1990) Hyaluronic acid esters, a new class of semisynthetic biopolymers: chemical and physicochemical properties.

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