By David, Bruno; Saucède, Thomas
The Southern Ocean surrounding the Antarctic continent is titanic, specifically, its heritage, its isolation, and weather, making it a distinct "laboratory case" for experimental evolution, version and ecology. Its evolutionary historical past of model offer a wealth of knowledge at the functioning of the biosphere and its capability.
The Southern Ocean is the results of a background of approximately forty million years marked through the hole of the Straits south of Australia and South the United States and extreme cooling. The violence of its climate, its very low temperatures, the formation of massive ice-covered components, as its isolation makes the Southern Ocean an international aside.
This publication discusses the results for the evolution, ecology and biodiversity of the zone, together with endemism, slowed metabolism, durability, gigantism, and its larval phases; positive aspects which make this mammoth ocean a "natural laboratory" for exploring the ecological adaptive procedures, scalable to paintings in severe environmental stipulations. this present day, biodiversity of the Southern Ocean is dealing with international swap, relatively in local warming and acidification of water our bodies. not able emigrate extra south, how will she cope, if any, to viewers from the North?
- Designed for curious readers to find the giant ocean surrounding the main remoted and such a lot inhospitable continent at the planet.
- Describes the Southern Ocean dealing with biodiversification as a result of worldwide change
- Authored through scientists with adventure of expeditions to the Southern Ocean
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Concerning the ProductPublished through the yank Geophysical Union as a part of the Antarctic examine sequence. content material:
Additional info for Biodiversity of the Southern Ocean
A small proportion of this biomass also flows towards the bottom to fuel the benthic communities. Antarctic krill is the main consumer of microalgae. During the austral summer, krill forms huge swarms, which in turn provide a source of food for many other consumers, fish, squid, penguins, and also some seals and species of whales, themselves prey to the ultimate predators: killer whales and leopard seals. On the seabed, the situation is more contrasted. Poorly diversified benthic communities, mainly composed of deposit-feeding organisms, such as echinoderms (sea cucumbers, brittle stars and sea urchins) and errant polychaete worms, are in marked constrast with communities composed of an abundant, diversified sessile fauna.
Paleo-geographic map of the Southern Hemisphere in the Early Jurassic (180 Ma) centered on the South Pole. The continents were united in a supercontinent, Gondwana. Landmasses are shown in gray; continental shelf limits are indicated by a solid black line. Redrawn from [LAW 03] On the other side of Antarctica, at the beginning of the Eocene (50 Ma), Australia began to separate from Antarctica and the Tasman Gateway opened. Initially, the channel was relatively shallow, as the Australian and Antarctic continental shelves were still joined.
Oxygen and nutrients, sources of marine life The production of organic matter by microalgae in phytoplankton is the basis of food chain webs, and thus of energy flow and the functioning of Antarctic marine ecosystems. It is the result of photosynthesis, which is only possible in the presence of light and nutrients. e. large carnivores such as orcas and seals. Only 3–10% of the organic matter produced in surface water reaches the ocean floor. At the bottom, part of the organic matter is ingested by benthic organisms, while the rest is re-mineralized and returned as macro-nutrients to the water column through upwelling.