By Kevin M. Bailey
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The hot variation of this generally revered textual content offers complete and up to date assurance of the results of biological–physical interactions within the oceans from the microscopic to the worldwide scale. considers the impression of actual forcing on organic procedures in quite a lot of marine habitats together with coastal estuaries, shelf-break fronts, significant ocean gyres, coral reefs, coastal upwelling parts, and the equatorial upwelling method investigates fresh major advancements during this quickly advancing box contains new study suggesting that long term variability within the international atmospheric circulate impacts the movement of ocean basins, which in flip brings approximately significant adjustments in fish shares.
This ebook information the results of weather variability on small pelagic fish and their ecosystems and fisheries. quite ample in coastal upwelling areas off the west coasts of the Americas and Africa, off Japan, and within the NE Atlantic, the shares of those fish vary vastly over the timescale of a long time, with huge ecological and monetary results.
In regards to the ProductPublished by way of the yankee Geophysical Union as a part of the Antarctic learn sequence. content material:
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Some of our problems managing ﬁsheries can be directly linked to political decisions made just a er World War II and to the treatment of marine ﬁsheries as a commodity to trade on the market of international treaties. ³⁰ is history of ﬁsheries as a commodity, rather than a living resource, might partly explain why the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) is part of the Department of Commerce, a situation which causes many to wonder how it ﬁts in there. ³² On the other hand, NMFS has the ﬁnal say in pollock harvests, and the agency maintains the proud record of never allowing the har- 24 / chapter 1 vest quota for this species to exceed the recommended levels set by science.
Hjort instead proposed that the abundance of ﬁsh populations changed with the successful recruitment of new year classes. at is, highly variable survival of newly born cohorts into local populations was driving the great ﬂuctuations. He also developed ideas about how the survival of the earliest stages of marine ﬁshes changed with environmental conditions, and how the survival rates contributed to year-to-year changes in availability to the ﬁsheries. ²¹ His eﬀorts to modernize ﬁsheries and to increase catches in order to improve the Norwegian economy mixed well with his idea that natural variations in ocean conditions are the main cause of ﬂuctuating ﬁsheries.
Huxley had li le formal schooling and was largely self-taught. He had le school at age ten due to family circumstances (his father had lost his job as a math teacher). e young man apprenticed from the age of thirteen to medical doctors. Later Huxley served as an apprentice and then assistant surgeon on the HMS Ra lesnake. It was on the Ra lesnake that he became a naturalist and comparative anatomist, and formed many of his opinions about the ocean. Huxley later taught as a professor at various institutions, and served as Inspector of Fisheries, and President of the Royal Society.