By Santiago Carbó Valverde, Pedro Jesús Cuadros Solas, Francisco Rodríguez Fernández
This e-book offers perception into present study issues in finance and banking within the aftermath of the monetary quandary. specialist authors authoritatively examine how banks finance their actions and get to the bottom of investment concerns. Chapters in particular speak about monetary tools corresponding to company bonds, IPOs, sukuks and microfinance funding cars (MIVs) in mild of the significance of institutional investment gaps. The decision-making strategy in the banking in regards to long-range monetary judgements and dividend rules can also be discussed.
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1 The regression model is finally estimated by using the White’s transformation in order to control for cross-section heteroskedasticity of the variables. 2 displays the empirical estimation of Eq. 1). Our findings show that size has a negative effect on provisioning. According to Hakanes and Schnabel (2011), size is negatively correlated because large institutions are able to take lower credit risk due to the IRB approaches and, in addition, large portfolios may provide better credit risk diversification.
As a matter of fact, LLPs were totally (before the Basel regulation) taken into consideration as a source of capital. However, at the time when the Basel accord came into play, LLPs could no longer be included in Tier 1 capital, but only for a small portion of Tier 2. S. (Ahmed et al. 1999; Kim and Kross 1998), and in the EU banking sector (among others: Anandarajan et al. 2003; Curcio and Hasan 2015; Pérez et al. 2008). The third incentive of earnings management is represented by the signaling hypothesis that happens when managers disclose to equity markets unexpected adjustments on provisioning.
The extant literature has highlighted that earnings management basically occurs by manipulating specific accruals. Several papers investigated how banks’ managers handle earnings through loan loss provisioning (Anandarajan et al. 2003, 2007; Curcio e Hasan 2015; DeBoskey and Jiang 2012; Dong et al. 2012; Kanagaretnam et al. 2003; Liu and Wahlen 1997; Ma 1988; Pérez et al. 2008; Wahlen 1994) and the timing of securities’ gains and losses (Cornett et al. 2009). 2 Incentives to Earnings Manipulation Previous findings suggest a list of three main incentives to earnings manipulation in the banking industry: income smoothing, capital management, and signaling effect.