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Written as a textual content for one-semester microbiology classes, the 3rd version of the hugely acclaimed Bacterial Pathogenesis attracts jointly the newest learn to aid scholars discover the mechanisms during which bacterial pathogens reason infections in people and animals. It positive aspects extra authors who provide new issues of view to make sure that all elements of the sphere are completely explored. Readers will realize the ideas that bacterial pathogens use to outlive and multiply inside of their hosts in addition to the techniques that hosts use to fend off infections. whilst, the textual content s attractive variety, illustrative examples, and thought-provoking workouts express the buzz and enjoyable of medical discovery.Completely revised and up to date, this 3rd variation incorporates a new association that dispenses with separate chapters devoted to person bacterial pathogens. as a substitute it specializes in middle ideas in keeping with the starting to be figuring out of the underlying similarities between pathogens and their mechanisms of motion. furthermore, readers accustomed to the former variation will locate a lot new fabric. for instance, there's new insurance of key findings at the mechanisms of bacterial secretion, pollution, and regulation.Study questions on the finish of every bankruptcy problem scholars to probe extra deeply into the problems lined. This version additionally deals new difficulties that immerse scholars within the discovery procedure. those difficulties current genuine learn facts, asking scholars to interpret the information after which devise new experiments that might aid construct their realizing. New to the 3rd EditionPresents new paradigms that unify innovations within the box of bacterial pathogenesisChallenges scholars to interpret real examine information and layout new experimentsExplores the newest findings at the mechanisms of bacterial secretion, pollution, and regulationExpands insurance of the function of standard microbial populations of the human physique in future health and diseaseIncludes new authors delivering extra views and issues of view Paperback, 540 pages, two-color illustrations all through, word list, index.
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Additional resources for Bacterial Pathogenesis: A Molecular Approach
To compensate for this loss of PMNs from the bloodstream, the release of PMNs from bone marrow into the bloodstream is markedly increased. Thus, although passage of these phagocytic cells from the bloodstream into tissue is increased, the net effect is a higher concentration of innate-defense cells in the blood. A high level of PMNs in the blood is a useful diagnostic indicator of infection. During an infection, The Innate Immune System PMNs are being produced so rapidly in bone marrow and dumped so quickly into the bloodstream that the immature form of PMNs (called ‘‘bands’’ because their nuclei look like bands) is seen in the blood.
From the bloodstream, they migrate to the locations where they will stand guard to respond to invading bacteria. DCs become activated when they recognize bacteria through shared repeated structural components, such as the bacterial cell wall components lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), or flagella, and other molecules specific to the bacteria, such as CpG-rich DNA that consists mostly Chapter 3 30 Table 3–1 Components of the innate immune system and their activities Component Cells PMNs Monocytes Characteristics Function(s) Found in blood; short-lived Found in blood; migrate to tissue where infection is occurring Ingest and kill bacteria; produce cytokines Precursor of macrophages Macrophages Process bacteria; produce cytokines; activate T cells and B cells Kupffer cells Alveolar macrophages Spleen macrophages NK cells Liver Lung Spleen Found in blood and tissue DCs Langerhans cells Lymph node DCs Dermis Lymph nodes Proteins Complement Cytokines Kill infected human cells; produce cytokines; organize response to infection Produced in liver; found in blood and tissue Produced by phagocytic cells and dendritic cells of alternating cytosine and quanine nucleotide bases (which is not prevalent in mammalian DNA).
In fact, mucosal cells are one of the fastest dividing populations of cells in the body. Thus, bacteria that manage to reach and colo- nize a mucosal surface are constantly being eliminated from the mucosal surface and can remain in the area only if they can grow rapidly enough to colonize newly produced cells. Chemical and other innate defenses help to reduce the growth rates of bacteria sufficiently to allow ejection of mucus blobs and sloughing of mucosal cells to clear the bacteria from the area.