By Gerhard Gottschalk (auth.)

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First acetyl-ACP reacts with malonyl-ACP to form acetoacetyl-ACP, which is then reduced to D(- )-fj-hydroxybutyryl-ACP. 17). 17 suggest that they may be relatively unspecific with respect to the chain length of their substrates. Indeed, they also catalyze the conversion ofbutyryl-ACP and malonyl-ACP to caproyl-ACP as well as all subsequent reactions until palmityl-ACP is formed.

B. Components of tpe respiratory chain The major components of the respiratory chain are proteins bearing prosthetic groups with oxidation-reduction potentials lying between those of NAD and oxygen. In the mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotic 23 The Formation of ATP in the Respiratory Chain organisms and the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria, these proteins are arranged in such a way that the reducing power of NADH2 can flow to oxygen via carriers of increasing oxidation-reduction potentials as if over cascades.

Biosynthesis of Amino Acids :r OH 7::7 I H N ~N z 43 (10)08 (5) NH 'TH-CHz-NH ~ COOH I CO-NH-TH "CHz NH tetrahydrofolic acid CHz I CIH Z llc:~~~ehYdroxymethYltranSferase COOH glycme N S , N'O-methylene tetrahydrofolic acid that serve not only as building blocks in protein synthesis, but also as important intermediates in nitrogen metabolism, as already outlined. 6). Biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids is very complicated; however, it has been of special interest to investigators since it involves the biosynthesis of the aromatic nucleus from aliphatic precursors.

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