By Marjorie Keniston McIntosh

This background of the English royal manor of Havering, Essex, illustrates existence at one severe of the spectrum of non-public and collective freedom throughout the later heart a while, revealing the categories of styles that could emerge while medieval humans have been positioned in a environment of surprising independence. As citizens of a manor held via the crown, they profited from royal administrative overlook. As tenants of the traditional royal demesne, they'd designated felony rights and fiscal privileges. Havering's dominant households managed the felony and administrative lifetime of their neighborhood during the robust manor courtroom. The tenants mixed successfully to avoid open air interference of their affairs, regardless of the individualistic self-interest take place of their fiscal dealings. In 1465 the tenants bought a royal constitution which tested Havering as a proper Liberty, with its personal justices of the peace. by way of the tip of the 15th century Havering displayed many features generally linked to the Elizabethan and Jacobean classes.

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Extra resources for Autonomy and Community: The Royal Manor of Havering, 1200-1500

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CCR, 1231-4, pp. 377 and 422. For later values, see PRO E 142/80/4. CCR, vol. 15, nos. 1027, 1065, 1144, 1145, 1147, 1191, 1241 and 1350. See Ralph V. Turner, The king and his courts (Ithaca, New York, Cornell Univ. Press, 1968), pp. 215^-25. 25 Havering, the crown and external control, 1200—1300 had assarted the holding. Since, however, they lacked charters affirming that the land had been legally cleared and arrented (and it probably had not been), judgement was given against them. 39 Quo warranto suits constituted a grave danger to Havering's tenants.

M. Nichols, Washington, D C , J. Byrne, 1901), p. 344). 34 Royal profit and privileges of ancient demesne, 1200—65 point of view of the king and royal justices too. In simplest terms, it removed a number of unimportant cases from an already overcrowded docket and contributed to a tidier definition of the jurisdiction of the central courts. At the same time it provided a means whereby the king's legal and administrative interest in his manorial tenants could be maintained after their land cases had been excluded from the central courts.

Pr. kal, no. 200, and CPR, 1281-92, p. 378. 20 Royal profit and privileges of ancient demesne, 1200—65 Havering's park and outwoods, for instance, received in most cases an annual payment from the crown and were able to collect sizeable sums through open or illegal sales of wood, grants of grazing rights to the tenants and outsiders, and fees for passage through the park and woods. 20 These men, usually friends or servants of the crown, were free to act through assistants and never needed to come to Havering in person.

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