By Jacob M. Landau

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49. 42. Y. Hershlag, op. , pp. 63-65. 43. Sina Ak~in, Jon Turklcr vc jttihat vc Terakki (The Young Turks and Union and Progress) (Istanbul: 1980), p. 280. 44. Feroz Ahmad, "Vanguard of a Nascent Bourgeoisie: The Social and Economic Policy of the Young Turks. , Social and Economic History of Turkey (1070-1920) (Ankara: Meteksan, 1980), p. 336. 45. F. Ahmad, op. , p. Y. Hershlag, op. , pp. 52-54. 46. F. Ahmad, op. , pp. 341 ff. 47. This thesis was developed by Tekin Alp in "Harbden Sulha intikal iktisadiyatl-Devlet iktisadiyatl" (From War to Peace: the State Economy), in the journal jktisadiyat Mecmuasl, 62, 64 (1917), pp.

B. Lewis, " ... Dii§iince Aktmlan," op. , p. 17. II. Numerous works have been devoted to the intellectual development of Mustafa Kemal. Recent studies include Enver Ziya Karal, "The Principles of Kemalism," in A. Kazanctgil and E. Ozbudull, op. ; Giirbiiz Tufek~i, Atatiirk'un DUfunce Yapm (The Structure of Ataturk's Thought) (Ankara: Tes-i§, 1981); Artun Unsal, "La bibliothcque politique franpise d' Ataturk," in P. -L. Bacque-Grammont, op. cit. 12. , Heyet-i Temsiliye Tutanaklart (Records of the Representative Committee) (Ankara: Turk Tarih Kurumu, 1975).

They introduced numerous reforms, and in the few years during which they were in authority Turkey witnessed remarkable transformations. Taking up where the CUP left off, Mustafa Kemal was to effect even more radical changes. As the rhythm of innovations was so rapid and so noticeable from the outside, observers in Turkey and abroad came to believe that the Kemalist Revolution was by its very nature profoundly different from all past processes of change in Turkish society. This view was upheld by Mustafa Kemal himself: "If you remember the past of some six years ago," he said at the end of the twenties, you will realize that we now have different foundations and different principles governing the state, the common relations between members of the nation, the advance on the way to civilization-in one word everything that concerns our structure, our organization and our national needs.

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