By Cesare Rossi

This publication describes innovations and designs of old engineers which are the precursors of the current. The a while in general diversity from three hundred B.C. to 1600 A.D. with a few exceptions from earlier than and after this era.

As for the very historical ones, the publication describes innovations (documented via archaeological unearths ordinarily from Pompei, Ercolano and Stabia) that normally are little or no recognized and occasionally no longer recognized in any respect. a few innovations are within the army box. it is because (unfortunately) many innovations and technological techniques were conceived ranging from army applications.

The e-book is split into 5 parts.

The first 4 elements pertain to yes fields and current innovations regularly conceived as much as the past due Roman Empire. innovations which are consultant of the engineering genius of the ancients and which may be regarded as milestones, each one of their respective field.

The 5th half refers to fields of engineering (such as textiles and automation) within which vital options have been conceived additionally in additional contemporary centuries.

For all the innovations awarded, even the traditional ones of many centuries previous, the authors offer 3 components of study and reference:

Written records (the classics)

Iconic references (coins, bas-reliefs, etc.)

Archaeological findings.

The goal teams of the booklet are scholars and students with curiosity on heritage of Mechanical Engineering in Antiquity and Archaelogy.

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Extra info for Ancient Engineers' Inventions: Precursors of the Present (History of Mechanism and Machine Science)

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Compression in a chamber, V is the compressed volume V = A . (x0 - x) Differentiating the relation p ⋅ V n = k = const. 25) with respect to V, and substituting into Eq. 23) gives c chamber = A 2 k⋅n V n +1 = A2 n⋅p A⋅n⋅p = . 26) The stiffness of a chamber therefore increases with a larger piston, higher pressure, shorter stroke or a larger value of the polytropic index. 27) chamberB . piston For a symmetrical cylinder, the minimum value of the natural frequency is at mid-stroke. g. Jebar 1977:345; Frühauf et al.

8 are used for oil-hydraulic orifices though Cd actually depends on a number of parameters. In addition to the geometric shape and the condition of the edge - sharp or slightly rounded - the Reynolds number is very important. There are many mathematical models for different types of orifices (Beater 1999). As an example, the model from Lichtarowicz et al. (1965) is given in Eq. 24). 4 Orifice Flow 33 L D1 D2 d p p 1 2 Fig. 4. 0085 Dh Dh hydraulic diameter, Dh = d for circular holes in m, β = D1/D2 ratio of diameters, model is valid for 10 < Reh < 20,000 and 2 < L/d < 10.

528 (choked flow) 1 When the mentioned assumptions - well rounded nozzle, negligible approach velocity - are met, the mass flow rate can be described by Eqs. 21) with an error of less than 1 per cent (Perry 1949). The model is even accurate enough to be used for measurement purposes. In the above derivation the approach velocity was assumed to be negligible small and set to zero. 22) + w 12 . Bialas (1973:15) studies the effect of a non-zero upstream velocity w1 when the nozzle is installed in a pipe.

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