By Toshi H. Arimura
Focusing on pollution, strength potency and weather swap, this ebook offers an creation to Japan’s environmental regulations and rules, and gives financial analyses and RIAs (Regulatory effect research) of environmental rules carried out or deliberate through the nationwide and native governments. the hole bankruptcy stories environmental economics and descriptions the present prestige of RIAs in Japan. bankruptcy 2 analyzes the NOx-PM Act, which prohibits using previous and polluting autos in metropolitan parts. bankruptcy three examines a Tokyo metropolitan executive rules which calls for set up of toxins regulate gear in older vehicles that fail to satisfy emission criteria. bankruptcy four lines the effect of the NOx-PM Act at the used motor vehicle marketplace and used car exports. bankruptcy five provides an financial research of a road toll aid, revealing an unforeseen unfavorable social impression: it elevated traffic jam and linked environmental difficulties. the ultimate 3 chapters handle rules and rules with regards to power potency and weather switch bankruptcy 6 evaluates the effectiveness of Japan’s power Conservation Act, initially brought in 1979 and amended quite a few occasions to deal with weather switch. bankruptcy 7 anticipates the influence of a proposed economy-wide carbon tax, utilizing input-output research to evaluate non permanent fiscal affects in each one area. additionally awarded this is an exam of the effectiveness of a discounted carbon tax for energy-intensive industries, with a dialogue of the impression of the concept on families. the ultimate bankruptcy discusses the position and obstacles of monetary types for comparing Japan’s mid-term GHG (Greenhouse gasoline) emission objective in the course of the post-Kyoto interval. this can be the 1st booklet to guage jap environmental guidelines from an monetary standpoint, utilizing numerous present quantitative methods. Its findings and proposals will profit scholars, coverage makers and executive officers in constructing and constructed international locations the place the general public faces comparable environmental problems.
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Extra resources for An Evaluation of Japanese Environmental Regulations: Quantitative Approaches from Environmental Economics
6, PM emissions decrease more rapidly than NOx emissions. PM emissions intensity improved substantially because the emission standard became stringent more rapidly since 1993 compared with NOx unit regulation (see Fig. 1). When measuring the volume of emissions reduction, we did not account for compliance methods other than replacement, such as moving/registering regulated vehicles outside of the enforcement areas and reducing the number of vehicles owned. Hence, the effect of emissions reduction refers only to the effect of replacement.
13 To compute TC in Eq. 5), we needed to measure NRt, the number of replaced vehicles, which in turn requires Nt, the number of old vehicles in year t (where t is some year after 2004). In this study, we first identified the number of regulated vehicles as of March 2003. Among the vehicles that were registered by 2003, some may have been replaced before their terminal years as a result of mechanical failures and traffic accidents. This “natural replacement” was removed from our estimates of Nt.
Ewo ,p denotes emissions without the VTR. Based on Eq. 6), Etwo , r , the emissions of pollutant p from vehicles registered in year r in year t can be expressed as follows: À 2003 Á p ,p p t À N rt Etwo , r ¼ er Â D Â N r þ e0 Â D Â N r ð2:7Þ where Ntr is the number of old vehicles still in use in year t. Thus, the first term À N rt represents emissions from existing older vehicles. In contrast, the term N 2003 r represents the number of older vehicles being replaced with new vehicles as a result of natural replacement.