By Karl Maramorosch, Frederick A. Murphy
The first assessment sequence in virology and released in view that 1953, Advances in Virus Research covers a various variety of in-depth reports, supplying a important evaluate of the sphere.
- Contributions from prime authorities
- Comprehensive studies for normal and expert use
- First and longest-running evaluation sequence in virology
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Doolittle and colleagues used protein structural similarity as well as published results from siRNA screens to establish a network of putative interactions between DENV proteins and proteins from mosquito and human hosts. Interestingly, the authors observed enrichment for proteins involved in stress response, UPR and IFN pathways. Examples of interactions related to ER stress/apoptosis include NS4B with GADD34 and NS2A, NS4B, and C with NYFA (a protein involved in ATF6 pathway) and E with BCL-2.
2005). , 1999). Unfortunately, this hypothesis has never been corroborated. Other reports postulated that HSP70/HSP90 would be required for DENV infection of human monocytes/macrophages but are dispensable for infection of liver cells. Infection of these cells might instead require the chaperon GRP78/BiP (glucose-regulated protein 78/binding immunoglobulin protein) (Cabrera-Hernandez, Thepparit, Suksanpaisan, & Smith, 2007; Jindadamrongwech, Thepparit, & Smith, 2004). , 2007). The assumption that GRP78/BiP acts as a DENV-2 receptor is also supported by a recent study demonstrating that after siRNA-mediated silencing of GRP78/BiP virus, yield and accumulation viral antigen in DENV-infected cells are massively reduced (Alhoot, Wang, & Sekaran, 2012).
This is due to the fact that a complete or at least partial denaturation of the proteins is required prior to gel electrophoresis raising doubts about the physiological relevance of the identified hits. , 2011). In this method, GSLs present in whole lipid extracts are separated by thin layer chromatography plates and then probed with DENV particles. , 2011). The analysis of the carbohydrate determinant responsible for the interaction with DENV indicates that the Galb1–4GlcNAcb-(Gal) at the nonreducing terminal of nLc4Cer appears to be required for virus binding.