V 1 1. EXCESS I V E (-sugiru) ] ADVER B I A L I ZATI O N S : [ - - > s - -> v - - - - - - - - - - - 2.

But it has been suggested that only those uses for which the pol ite desite can be substituted ( § 22. 1 ) are appropriately considered the COP U LA gerund as such. 1 . ) . Cf. kara 9. 2. materia l '( made) out of' = kara 3 (but preferred to kara in speech) : kam i de tukuru 'makes it (out) of paper', kl de dekite iru 'is made (out) of wood'. 3a . means, i nstrument 'by, with, using': o-hasi de taberu 'eats with chopsticks', enpitu de kaku 'writes in penci l '. 3b. vehi cu lar means '(rid i ng) on (a vehicle) ' = ni notte : kuruma de i ku 'goes by car'.

DAT I V E O F BEN E F IT 'for' = [ no tame] n i 'being for the sake/case of'; DAT I VE O F CO N F RONTAT ION 'toward, with respect to' = ni [tai-site] 'being opposed to, confronted with '-as in haha ni sinsetu da 'is kind to mother', sa ke ni yowai 'is easi ly affected by drink', kei ken ni tobosli n 'is wanting in experience', kei ken ni tomu 'abounds in experience'. 4; for the DAT I V E O F D I ­ R ECT I O N , see 5 below. 1 a. pseudo-reciprocal use of dative of confrontation ' [coming in contact] with' (N ni/to + au 'meets', wa kareru 'parts', n iru 'resembles', kuraberu 'compares', ...

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