By Julian Hoppit

The fantastic Revolution of 1688-9 was once a decisive second in England's heritage; an invading Dutch military compelled James II to escape France, and his son-in-law and daughter, William and Mary, have been topped as joint sovereigns. the broader outcomes have been no much less startling: conflict in eire, union with Scotland, Jacobite intrigue, deep involvement in significant eu wars, Britain's emergence as an exceptional energy, a 'financial revolution', higher spiritual toleration, a riven Church, and the speedy progress of parliamentary executive. Such adjustments have been simply a part of the transformation of English society on the time. A torrent of recent rules from such figures as Newton, Defoe, and Addison, unfold via newspapers, periodicals, and coffee-houses, supplied new perspectives and values that a few embraced and others loathed. England's horizons have been additionally becoming, specifically within the Caribbean and American colonies. for plenty of, besides the fact that, the advantages have been doubtful: the slave exchange flourished, inequality widened, and the terrible and 'disorderly' have been more and more topic to strictures and statutes. If it used to be an age of customers it used to be additionally considered one of anxieties. This new textual content presents a very basic assessment of britain among the fantastic Revolution and the loss of life of George I and Newton. a part of the hot Oxford historical past of britain sequence, it's a huge ranging survey that mixes the wealthy secondary literature with huge fundamental learn. It appears to be like at politics, faith, economic climate, society, and tradition and seeks to put England in its British, ecu, and international contexts. It comprises an annotated bibliography and should end up helpful to a variety of scholars of the interval.

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Catherine of 1630–85 Braganza 1638–1708 Anne Hyde m. James II m. Mary of Modena 1637–71 1633–1701 1658–1718 Mary m. William II 1631–60 of Orange 1626–50 James Francis Edward m. Clementina Sobieska The Old Pretender 1702–35 1688–1766 Charles Edward The Young Pretender 1720–88 William III m. Mary II 1662–94 1650–1702 Three other children Henry Benedict 1725–1807 Anne m. George of Denmark 1665–1714 1653–1708 William, Duke of Glouester 1689–1700 F. 1 The succession to the Crowns of England and Scotland, 1603–1727        15 many questions gained answers only generally acceptable during a relatively short-lived crisis.

Perhaps there was some sense of exhaustion. Few were now alive who as adults had endured the strains of the Restoration world. And even those who had reluctantly embraced the accession of William and Mary never forgot that it had given them what they most prized, a Protestant establishment wedded to an active mixed constitution. Moreover, the gains won at the peace treaties in 1697 and 1713, the latter on the back of the Duke of Marlborough’s famous victories in battle, not only guaranteed that achievement but also established England (more accurately ‘Britain’ and, from 1707, the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’) as a European great power capable of exercising its authority across the Atlantic and into the Mediterranean.

Many agreed 9 G. Burnet, History of his Own Time, 6 vols. (Oxford, 1823), vol. 3, p. 374. ’10 James ‘has quitted the government . . 11 There was never any question that the Crown would be filled. The experience, memories, and myths of the Cromwellian interregnum convinced the vast majority that a republican commonwealth was closer to purgatory than Zion. Commons and Lords alike, deeply committed as they were to ideas of hierarchy and patriarchy, rigidly held to the need for monarchy—for a single fount of authority and a parental figure to lead, educate, order, and protect.

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