By Bulent Gokay

This e-book bargains with the aftermath of the ""Great Game"" - the protracted fight among Britain and Russia for impression within the heart japanese and imperative Asian lands that bordered the increasing Russian empire of the late-19th century. It covers a interval that was once the most important within the smooth political historical past of the complete quarter from Thrace to the Caucasus, exhibiting how an alliance among Turkish nationalism and Bolshevism pressured Britain to acknowledge that it didn't have the manpower and assets to consolidate the spoils of its victory after international warfare I. It additionally offers ancient history to the present geopolitical pursuits of either Turkey and Russia within the war-torn Caucasus.

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Lower on the economic scale, and able to survive but not prosper, were the villages “owned” by Kurdish tribes. Again, such villages were both Christian and Muslim. These villages paid a traditional “tax” to a tribe in their region. In turn, the tribe provided protection from other tribes as well as protection from the owner tribe itself. This type of arrangement was seen all over Europe and Asia in premodern times. It had been in place in Eastern Anatolia long before the Ottomans appeared. 2 Occasionally the arrangement worked very well for both the Kurdish “owners” and the villagers.

8, Eastern Turkey Mission, Woman’s Board, vol. 01, Eastern Turkey, 1903–1909, Letters, no. 18; Otto Kley, “Der Deutsche Bildungseinfluss in der Türkei,” Beiträge zur Kenntnis des Orients 14 (1917): 43. They had not yet begun teaching in 1910 (Grace H. Knapp, Mission at Van [privately published, 1916], p. 12; Clarence D. Ussher, An American Physician in Turkey [Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1917], p. 211). Unless otherwise indicated, agricultural and horticultural comparisons in this section are drawn from Orman ve Maden ve Ziraat Nezâreti, Kalem-i Mahsus Müdüriyeti İstatistik Şübesi, 1325 Senesi Asya ve Afrika-yı Osmanı Ziraat İstatistiği (Istanbul: Matbaa-yı Osmani, 1327 Mali).

Others were well armed and able to protect themselves from attacks by Kurdish tribes. The armed villages were inhabited by Muslims, Christians, or both together. They had always been armed. While unable to resist concerted attacks by entire tribes, they could make attacks on them an expensive proposition for tribes or bandits. There were easier targets, so the tribes and bandits left them alone. Easily defended villages in mountainous terrain, perhaps the majority of them Armenian and Nestorian, particularly fell into the well-defended category.

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