By Roger Crowley

A gripping exploration of the autumn of Constantinople and its connection to the realm we are living in today.

The fall of Constantinople in 1453 signaled a shift in heritage and the tip of the Byzantium Empire. Roger Crowley's readable and complete account of the conflict among Mehmet II, sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and Constantine XI, the 57th emperor of Byzantium, illuminates the interval in background that was once a precursor to the present clash among the West and the center East.

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Edward William Lane, An Arabic-English Lexicon, 8 vols. v. sharaqa. z al-Turkiyya f¯ı al-Lahj¯at al- Arabiyya wa f¯ı Lughat al-Kit¯aba (Cairo: D¯ar al-Zahr¯a lil-Nashr, 1991), 55. Others have claimed a possible Coptic origin for the word. v. sh¯ın, r¯a , q¯af. , ed. Christian D´ecobert (Cairo: Institut franc¸ais d’arch´eologie orientale, 1992), 315–20. Later, the Kanunname outlines similar responsibilities for Bedouin shaykhs. r, 37; Barkan, Kanunlar, 363. r, 30–31; Barkan, Kanunlar, 360–61. 12 Nature and Empire in Ottoman Egypt Much of the Kanunname, and especially those sections dealing with irrigation in Egypt, was based on earlier laws and precedents.

Ab Iranian Culture” (I. K. Poonawala). The political, economic, and administrative histories of Ottoman Egypt that have proved most useful for my analysis are the following: Stanford J. r al- Uthm¯an¯ı (Cairo: Maktabat al-Kh¯anj¯ı, 1980); Michael Winter, Egyptian Society under Ottoman Rule, 1517–1798 (London: Routledge, 1992); Peter Gran, Islamic Roots of Capitalism: Egypt, 1760–1840 (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1979); the relevant sections of P. M. Holt, Egypt and the Fertile Crescent, 1516–1922: A Political History (London: Longmans Green, 1966); the relevant contributions to P.

These latent meanings persist in the usage of the word in the context of law. 31 Knowledge sprung forth from this body of law to quench the desires and meet the needs of the community. This example of the etymology of shar¯ı a again shows us both how water was conceived to be and how it actually did serve as a constitutional and transformative element of Muslim societies in Egypt and elsewhere. Toward an Environmental History of the Ottoman Empire Unlike most studies of the early modern Ottoman Empire or of Egypt, the arguments and descriptions of this book very much take their cues from and are largely grounded in the relatively young field of environmental history.

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